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The knee is a fairly stable joint with many ligaments and muscle passing over and around. The knee consists of two joints: the patello-femoral joint (between the femur and knee cap), and the tibio-femoral joint (between the upper and lower leg bones).


Soreness around the kneecap, locking, giving way, pain on climbing stairs, swelling, heat, redness and muscle weakness are all possible symptoms.

Within and surrounding the knee and patella are a number of ligaments and muscles which may emit pain. Within the knee there are ligaments which contribute to stability and are essential in sports where pivoting and turning is required.

We may look at the feet as a possible cause. Poorly fitting shoes/trainers may twist the knee and therefore better in-soles may be the answer. Weakness around the hip and also running posture may be the cause, as without appropriate hip strength it is difficult to control the knee and foot placement.

The Menisci are two semi-circular rings of cartilage. They sit on top of the tibia and contribute to stability and shock absorption. ‘locking’ and ‘giving-way’ are the common signs of a meniscal lesion.


  • Meniscal Lesion
  • MCL/LCL strain
  • Bursa inflammation
  • Knee cap dislocation
  • ACL rupture
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Incorrect foot wear

“I was just gardening, getting out of the car, crossing the road, getting out of bed when I felt a pain in my knee”


Conservative management aims to reduce swelling and restore range of movement. To decide whether or not surgery is indicated, movement is paramount, particularly the ability to straighten the knee.

Electrotherapy is useful in order to optimise the healing of tissues by accelerating blood flow, reducing inflammation and helping to remove waste chemicals.

Manual therapy involving the mobilisation of the knee is useful in restoring movement and easing pain. Exercise is essential to restore and maintain the muscles around the knee as without appropriate strength, the knee cannot function optimally.

There is a huge emphasis on rehabilitation with all injuries, particularly the knee joint, especially if you are thinking of returning to a contact or high impact sport. Whole bodily rehabilitation, incorporating leg and core exercises with a particular focus on balance, coordination and plyo-metric (Bounding) activities.